Plastic Free July: Week 1

The Ehlers household has officially completed our first week plastic free (well… almost). It has been an eye-opening week and there have been revelations, personal doubts and – I won’t lie – some pregnant-lady tears. In my mind I have always been extremely conscientious in terms of my plastic consumption but it wasn’t until this challenge that I realised how much has been sneaking past the gates. But really, when the average person creates 726kg of plastic waste every year should I be so surprised?

Week 1 Summary

Since moving away from the very green suburb of Fremantle my households biggest failing has definitely been food shopping. Well… the coordination of it anyway. Probably 50% of the time, my husband and I find that after socialising, renovating, gardening, studying, cleaning, blogging and pure relaxation duties we have completely run out of time to do our weekly shop! Come Monday we found ourselves unprepared with one very anti-green, non-organic, highly packaged option: the supermarket.

Monday

On Monday the reality of our society’s plastic addiction hit me. Literally everything is wrapped in plastic! I tried to escape it in the fruit and vegetable section but even there it found me. Herbs, cauliflowers, berries – all wrapped in unnecessary plastic packaging. I grabbed some veggies and headed home knowing full well that we still had some plastic wrapped stock from the week before – by next week I am in trouble!

Tuesday

My gorgeous hubby had a win today. At first he was embarrassed about taking his own container to the butcher to get his meat supply but he soldiered on. The local butcher was more than happy to weigh the container, fill it with chicken and then deduct the weight from the end measurement. Not only was the guy really friendly but also took an interest in Plastic Free July. Who knows what type of mental seeds that may have planted?

Wednesday

Despair. As I mentioned in my last post about being positive this was the day that I… well… completely lost my shit. Looking down the end of each aisle all I could see were endless shelves of plastic. Trawling through them was even more disheartening. Even beautiful reusable glass jars were wrapped in plastic – why? It just breaks my heart. All I could think was that this is just one aisle, in one supermarket, in one suburb, in one state, in one very sparsely populated country on one globe. The true scale of this problem is terrifying. It was too much for this hormonal little lady to bear. I spoke to a shop assistant who told me Borax was being discontinued… I left in floods of tears. I gave up that night. My husband and I ended up at the pub where we shared a pizza made from ingredients which probably came wrapped in plastic. White flag is officially hoisted.

Every 15 seconds this amount of plastic garbage gets released into the sea. (From Out to Sea – The Plastic Garbage Project just opened in the Zurich Museum of Design / Switzerland)

Thursday

I was accosted by some co-workers today. I couldn’t buy some charity merchandise (wrapped in a plastic sleeve) and the lady could not understand why. She offered to remove the plastic and bin it and just give me the goods within. I explained that this was not the point and all of a sudden I was the anti-Christ – which is very bad when you work in the finance department of a religious organisation. I was accused of adding further stress to the poverty-stricken women of India, forcing Australians out of employment and being completely delusional. I tried to concentrate on all the people that have been so lovely and helpful on this short journey and also turned to my OOB Facebook friends for some boosting. We all decided that people who react so irrationally are doing so out of guilt, laziness and narrow-mindedness. And another bonus – it strengthened my resolve.

“If you can find a path with no obstacles, it probably doesn’t lead anywhere”

~ Frank A. Clark.  

One thing that raised my spirits beyond belief was a surprise package (absolutely plastic free) from the Western Earth Carers, the very environmental warriors that created Plastic Free July. Not only was there a gorgeous PFJ badge – which I have decided to now wear every time I go to any shop – but also an autographed copy of Jude Blereau’s book Wholefood for Children as a thank you for my relentless Plastic Free blogging (see all Jude’s books here!). Thank you Earth Carers for yet again picking me up and inspiring me!

Friday

Life is looking up! I found some goats cheese in a glass jar from Meredith Dairy. A quick google showed me that their website had a section dedicated to their environmental philosophy (always a great sign) and provided stacks of information about the animal welfare and how they approach sustainable farming. Have a look here. It was slightly expensive ($11) but this represented the quality as well as the true embodied cost – we also found we savored it more. I managed to enjoy the hell out of one cube before my husband dropped the jar and smashed it on our kitchen tiles. He actually had to wrestle me while I tried to rinse the glass off and continue gorging. Glass is probably not good for a baby. It has not been a great week.

Weekend = Time for Action

It seems our big challenge is our diet. My husband is a gluten-intolerant omnivore (gluten free things seem to always come in plastic) and I am fiercely attempting to be vegetarian while pregnant (even though I am getting some unsolicited advice on the subject). I have read a few books and do not believe – for me – that I could healthily manage a vegan pregnancy. So with this in mind, the hardest items for us to go plastic free are; speciality flours, pasta, nuts, seeds, spices, herbs and berries.

Solution #1 – Pantry Store

So on Saturday with all my own containers in tow I wandered down to the Pantry Kitchen in Rockingham City. I asked the woman very nicely if she could weigh my containers prior to filling and then deduct the weight from the total. Unfortunately she said it would be ‘a bit of an effort’ and while she could do it she would rather not. Breathe. All fairness to her, at the very moment I approached her 20 other customers materialised from nowhere and so she may have felt some heat from the crowd. I didn’t need too much and I wasn’t buying anything like saffron or pine-nuts so I took the 20gram tax in my stride. For now.

But hear this lazy store-person (readers, please imagine that I am Liam Neeson in Taken) I don’t know who you are but I will return, I will bring my own containers and I will kill you – no! I mean FILL THEM. I will fill them!

Lady, you have been warned.

I will fill them.

Solution #2 – Farmers Market

On Sunday we braved Arctic conditions to visit the Peel Farmers Market. It was absolutely tiny but still very fruitful (and fruit full!). Here we found plastic free herbs, amazing homemade jams, lemon curd, organic sourdough loaves and lots of organic produce: leafy greens, capsicums, ginger and apples! Not only did we get some beautiful produce we also got to discover new things (Mustard greens – A party in my mouth!) and meet great new people who could tell me all about how and where the produce was grown.

I was a bit disappointed by one gentleman that had a stall at which everything was wrapped in plastic. While I would generally ignore this and move on there were some precious ruby’s catching my eye… STRAWBERRIES! I approached him and told him about my plastic free challenge and asked if he could give me the red jewels without the container and then (bonus) reuse it! He told me there was absolutely no point but said he would ‘probably’ reuse it. How’s that for a vote of confidence? He then started telling me that plastic was the way of the future before he started questioning if the car I came in was made of plastic. I attempted to explain single-use plastic to him but cut my losses and decided I didn’t want to give him any of my money’s anyway. I went back to Victor (from Victors Gourmet Delights) and tested out all his delicious sauces and preserves.

The Congruency Secret

A guest post by Rebecca Dettman on my favorite wellness blog (The Wellness Warrior) was incredibly timely this morning. It was called The Congruency Secret (see the whole article here) and it asks the very simple but ultimately puzzling question:

Do your behaviours match your intentions?

This week I realised that lately, mine haven’t. I hate the supermarket and this year vowed never to be in one – yet time (lack of) and convenience sucked me in and I found myself buying non-organic food and supporting a corporation that I despise. I have also proven that those ‘impossible to avoid’ plastics are possible to avoid. Before this challenge I was coasting along and letting very achievable goals slip past me rather than taking the bull by the horns and fighting harder for the environment.

So, this week I intend to make my own Rice milk and for the first time in my life attempt homemade pasta. I am living more creatively and learning new skills all the way. I have used the pain of my berry loss to kick my little procrastinating butt into action and we are finally getting the vegetable patch finished. My hubby and I are booking a week in August off work and are attacking our garden (I will blog about it of course). Then I will have miiiiillions of berries.

Lessons I Have Learnt

Taking into account that I must be proactive;

  • I will now order my food online from a local Organic business that delivers. If I am constantly running out of time to get to the shops then this is an easy solution that will avoid me missing out on my organic produce and giving my pennies to the supermarket.
  • I will book in a monthly trip to Fremantle to buy all of my ingredients in bulk… rather than buying bits here and there that last me a week at most.
  • I will strive to only support local business and inspiring individuals that really make a difference.

Any readers who are doing the Plastic Free July Challenge please let me know how you’ve been going in the comments! Any innovations, challenges, lovely reactions, not so lovely (I’m still looking at you Strawberry Man) or any make your own experiments. I would love to hear!

Free Screening: “Bag It – Is Your Life Too Plastic?”

This is a documentary about an ordinary guy who looked around one day and realised – ‘Wow. I have a lot of plastic in my life’. So he set himself a simple goal – to stop using plastic bags at the grocery store. This simple goal turned into an inspiring documentary that proves that you don’t need to be a scientist, politician or lawyer to use a little bit of knowledge to make a whole lot of difference. Take a look around. Is your life too plastic? How much are you wearing, touching, sitting on or at, typing on, chewing…

A quick lunchtime illustration on some old office paper

“Think about it, why would you make something that you’re going to use for a few minutes out of a material that’s basically going to last forever, and you’re just going to throw it away. What’s up with that?”

– Jeb Berrier

The great thing about this documentary (directed by Suzan Beraza) is that it is inspiring and simple and sometimes downright funny. The ordinary guy – Jeb Berrier – is so accessible. He is easy to like and easier to relate too. Check out the trailer…

Tonight (Tuesday 7th February) there will be a free screening of the multi-award winning Bag it at the City of Fremantle Town Hall from 6pm to 8pm (doors open at 5:30pm). There will be light refreshments and a relaxed positive vibe – as there always is at these amazing Freo community gatherings. It is a great place for all ages – my mum will be my date tonight – and it is a great place to meet likeminded people and learn a little at the same time.

Plastic Free Freo (along with City of Fremantle and Ecoburbia) have been huge supporters of this screening of Bag It. Plastic Free Freo is an amazing campaign that is currently working with the Fremantle community (both the retailers and consumers) towards a more sustainable town with a lower carbon footprint. If the campaign is successful Fremantle will hopefully resume the role of ecological trendsetters and become the first town in Western Australia to impose a ban on single-use plastic bags. If you want to get involved with the campaign contact Plastic Free Freo here.

This doco is equally important whether you are informed about the plastic problem or just starting out on your journey towards a plastic free life. I look forward to seeing you down there.

Bag It Flyer

Here is a map of how to get there –

Tackling The Plastic Bag Problem Around The World

The Bangladesh Jute industry has bounced back due to the plastic bag ban – Image from http://www.hello.news352.lu

A wise man once said “with great power comes great responsibility”. I believe that man was Spiderman? Never mind – the point is that thought-provoking little hybrid got me thinking about Australia. We really are ‘the lucky country’ sitting pretty on the comparative global scale. Sure, we complain about drought but last year more than 29,000 children under age 5 died in 90 days in southern Somalia. We complain about ignorant politicians but despite my loathing of his attitudes (and taste in swimwear) I still prefer Abbott to the likes of Gaddafi, Mugabe or al-Assad. We complain about the rising price of groceries while 75,000 people die every day from starvation. We are unbelievably privileged.

‘Australia is a lucky country, run mainly by second-rate people who share its luck.’

Donald Horne, The Lucky County, 1964

This fortunate position should inspire Australia to become leaders in technologies, ideas and attitudes that will help the planet, yet sadly we are lagging behind. A prime example is the great plastic bag debate. Why are we not employing a bit of forethought and banning plastic bags like many countries (developed and developing) around the world are? South Australia and now the Australian Capital Territory have led the charge but we need to do more. Clean Up Australia says that Australians use in excess of 6 billion plastic bags per year. It isn’t good enough.

Maybe we can take some inspiration from other countries around the world that are reducing (or have already significantly reduced) their plastic appetite…

Bangladesh

The Bangladesh Jute industry has bounced back due to the plastic bag ban – Image from http://www.hello.news352.lu

As I explained in my post about the effects of plastic, in 1988 and 1998 plastic bags were determined the main cause of devastating floods that submerged two-thirds of the country. In 2002 Bangladesh was the first large country to impose an outright ban of the use of polyethylene bags. Not only was there a significant reduction in plastic pollution but it also revived sustainable industries which have biodegradable alternatives such as the Jute Bag industry.

Italy

Italy used to be responsible for 25% of all the plastic bags in Europe which equates to roughly 25 billion a year.  As of January 1st 2011 single-use non-biodegradable plastic bags were outlawed. Retailers – predictably – warned of pandemonium at the checkouts but evidently people have survived. Maybe the customers were smarter than the retailers thought and noticed those wonderful appendages at the end of their arms that can be used for carrying things?

South Africa

SA really came to the table! Not only did they ban the use of thin plastic bags in 2003  but also imposed a 100,000 rand ($12020AUD) fine and a 10-year jail sentence for any retailers caught handing out bags! This has encouraged shoppers to either take their own sustainable carry bags or invest in plastic bags that can be used more than once.

More information can be found at the BBC South Africa bans plastic bags.

Ireland

This is my favourite example of plastic bag reduction because (to me) it absolutely typifies the flippant Western attitude towards plastic bags. In May 2002 Ireland placed a 15 euro-cent (25cAUD) levy on supermarket checkout bags. Within 3 months Ireland had cut its plastic usage by 90%. There was a 95% decrease in plastic bag litter. This model has been so successful that the Department of Environment (Department of The Environment, Ireland ) have since increased the levy to 22euro-cents. The health of the planets oceans, animals, people and atmosphere proved to be worth less than 15cents. I guess the ends justify the means?

China

More than 1.3billion people live in China. If they had not recognised the danger of plastic the results would be catastrophic.  It has been estimated that 37 million barrels of crude oil are used to produce China’s annual supply of plastic bags – 3 billion every year! In June 2008 (before the Olympics) the Chinese State Council put a nationwide ban on plastic bags. It prohibited all shops, supermarkets, and sales outlets from handing out free plastic bags and banned the production, sale, and use of ultra-thin plastic bags less than 0.025mm thick.  Since the ban China has reduced its bag consumption by half which saves 1.6million ton of oil! Looks like the red is greener than the green and gold! ()

India

Similar to Bangladesh, India also had severe flooding and landslides due to plastic bags blocking drain systems during monsoon season. Many cows also died after mistakenly ingesting the plastic bags. A ban was imposed banning the manufacture, sale and use of all plastic bags.

New Zealand

Our Kiwi kinsman used to have an impressive appetite for plastic consuming 1 billion bags per year. A five-year initiative (the New Zealand Packaging Accord 2004 – 2009) was introduced to attempt to reduce plastic bag usage by a fifth. While they still have a way to go AC Nielsen data shows that consumers are now taking on average 5.8 bags down from twelve months earlier (6.5 bags). It sounds measly but actually equates to 100million less bags!

Europe

Similar to some companies in Australia (Officeworks for one) a select few countries throughout Europe have decided to take matters into their own hands. Instead of waiting for government legislation to force their hands, most retailers in Germany, Switzerland and Denmark charge for plastic bags at the check-out.

Kenya

The late, great Professor Wangari Mathaai – Image from http://www.elleafriquemagazine.wordpress.com

Last year Kenya (and indeed the world) lost an amazing woman – Professor Wangari Mathaai, 2004 Nobel Peace Prize winner.  Before she died Mathaai had spoken out about the effect that plastic bags were having, not only in Kenya but all across Africa. Discarded plastic bags were filling up with rainwater and were becoming perfect little pools for mosquitos to breed in which caused a dramatic rise in vector-borne diseases such as malaria. In early 2005 the Kenyan government (with the help of UNEP and the Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis) imposed a ban on thin plastic bags as well as placing a levy on the heavier varieties. Any money raised is put towards recycling schemes.

San Francisco

In 2007 San Francisco became the first state in the USA to ban the use of plastic bags in grocery stores. Biodegradable bags made from materials such as paper or corn by-prodcuts are allowed. Just two years after the ban was imposed San Fran saw a reduction of 18%.

USA

Around the US many towns, cities and sometimes entire states are taking note of the dangers of prolific plastic bag use. In January 2010 bans were placed in the following counties – Brownsville, Texas and Kauai (Hawaii). While a complete ban was overthrown in Californies various Cali cities agreed to it (Malibu, Fairfax and Palo Alto). Other notable cities were Bethel (Alaska), Edmonds (Washington) and Westport (Connecticut). Slowly, slowly America is starting to act on their 100billion bag a year habit.

Last and… well, probably least… Australia!

South Australia – as always – are leading the plastic free charge. In 2009 a ban was placed on all lightweight shopping bags. The Ehrenberg-Bass Institute for Marketing Science at UniSA has reported that before the ban six in ten shoppers would take their own reusable bags to the shops, which has now risen to nine in ten! What a fantastic success. The Northern Territory and the ACT are now also taking steps to reduce their consumption. The ACT are trialed a four-month transitional ban (July – November 2011) and is now in full effect after getting a great result from an environmental perspective as well as from consumer attitudes.

The is more information about the South Australian plastic bag ban here.

What are we waiting for?

The above list is just a small selection of forward thinking countries that are fighting the war on plastic. Honourable mentions go to Bhutan, Cameroon, Eritrea, Brazil, Canada, France, Holland and Nepal. We really have no excuse not to act. Beyond that it is our responsibility  to act.

If the government fails to act then there are always steps that you can take, at an individual level or within your community, to make a difference. Tomorrow I will upload my post on reducing plastic in your life. If you want to learn more about the issues, here are some fantastic resources;

The Effects of Plastic

A hero of mine – Tim Silverwood [Image originally from http://www.surfwx.net

The use of plastics in Western society is so illogical and so blatantly flawed that it makes my head spin. We are using plastic (a man-made material designed to last forever) to create products that are designed to be thrown away! It wasn’t always like this. You just need to sit with your grandparents for a chat about the good ol’ days to see where we started going wrong. Milk used to be delivered in little glass bottles that would be collected and reused. My Grandma used to send soda and beer bottles back to the factory to be sterilised and refilled. When she would send fragile things in the mail it was wrapped in newspaper – not bubble wrap. She would wash my mothers’ material nappy rather than throw them in the trash. It is all making sense now. We are so focused on convenience that we are literally turning the earth into a trash can.

“We currently recover only 5% of the plastics we produce. What happens to the rest of it? Roughly 50% is buried in landfills, some is remade into durable goods, and much of it remains “unaccounted for”, lost in the environment where it ultimately washes out to sea” – 5 Gyres Institute

Since watching “Plasticized” (a documentary about ocean plastic pollution) I have declared not only to make it Plastic Week here at Olive on Blonde, but also to entirely banish plastic from my life. Before I make massive life changes though I always like to have a really good understanding as to why I am. So I got out my reading glasses…

The Problem with Plastic

Firstly, where it comes from. Plastic bags are made from ethylene, a gas that is produced as a by-product of oil, gas and coal production – all non-renewable fossil fuels. Ethylene is then made into polymers which are in turn made into pellets. These pellets can be used to produce a whole range of items. The problem is a huge amount of plastic products fall into two main categories; Single Use Items or Short-term Use Items.

Single Use Items

Items like plastic bags, water bottles, packaging or lolly-pop sticks. These items can have a usability of 2 minutes but a lifespan of 1000years! To put this into perspective, the amount of petroleum used to make one plastic bag would drive a car about 115 metres! By that logic, in Australia we use approximately 6.9 billion plastic checkout bags every year which would be enough to drive a car 800 million kilometres which is nearly 20,000 times around the world or 4 round trips to the Sun!

Short-term Use Items

Do you find that every time you buy something a better, more efficient, trendier product has replaced it the next day? This can range from TV’s to phones or even toothbrushes… “Wow – that brush has a unique bristle design to clean my tongue and cheeks… my old one only has whitening cups. I better go get the new one”. And then there are all those dentist recommendations telling you to buy a new brush every 3 months. These are very well-thought out marketing ploys by the name of either ‘Planned Obsolescence’ or ‘Perceived Obsolescence’. It is basically a way to shame you into buying a new product when your existing one is still completely functional.

Effects on the Natural Environment

The polluted coastline of Kamilo Beach, Hawaii [Image by http://www.rozsavage.com

Other than being unbelievably ugly, disposed of plastics have massive effects on both the urban and natural environment. Details about the natural environment are spoken about in all the below points; things like animal death and injury, biotoxificaton and the fact that it is non-biodegradable. Biodegradable plastic is not all it is cracked up to be; some plastics only degrade when in contact with sunlight (not buried in landfill), others can take 500 years to decompose and others are actually more dangerous as when they finally do breakdown they release methane into the atmosphere. With roughly 50% of the plastic we use ending up in landfill this is all of serious concern.

Effects on the Urban Environment

Flood victims waiting to receive aid at flooded port city of Narayangonj. Aug 26, 1998.[Image by Pavel Rahman

Plastic can also be extremely dangerous for urban environments and the people that live in them. In 1988 and 1998 over two thirds of Bangladesh flooded – the capital, Dhaka, aws 2m underwater. In the 1998 floods 1,070 people died and 30million were left homeless. The main culprit for this flooding was discarded plastic bags covering and getting caught in drains. This led to a complete ban on plastic bands being imposed in 2002. Similarly I went to Bali last year and could not believe my eyes! Along the streets, in the rivers, in the ocean even in the jungles of Ubud – plastic rubbish was everywhere. In Bali (also a developing country) it is too expensive to dispose of so they just have to leave it there unless they come up with their own solutions…. I walked past as a Balinese man lit his pile of plastic on fire to destroy it. It was horrendous seeing the plumes of black smoke whirring up into the atmosphere, and watching people and children talking near the fire and surely inhaling the toxic chemicals it was producing.

Effects on Animals

A very famous image of a Green Sea turtle eating a plastic bag                       – Image found at http://www.kropes98.global2.vic.edu.au

According to Care2 “more than a million seabirds and 100,000 marine animals die every year from ingestion of or entanglement in plastics”. These animals (including whales, seals, turtles and dolphins) die slow and painful deaths either from intestinal blockages or drowning. Considering  we use approximately 500 billion plastic bags alone every year that is a lot of potential deaths – especially when you realise that plastic bags can be serial killers. The animals that swallow the plastic decompose quicker than the plastic inside them which then releases it back out into the water for another poor soul to mistake as a jellyfish.

“24 August 2000 – a Bryde’s whale died in Trinity Bay (2 km from central Cairns). An autopsy found that the whale’s stomach was tightly packed with plastic, including supermarket bags, food packages, bait bags, three large sheets of plastic, and fragments of garbage bags. There was no food in its stomach”

                                                                                                        ~Federal Department of Environment & Heritage website

Effects on Human Health

Mahi Mahi Fish full of plastic – Image from RozSavage.com

As I also explained in my last post fragments of plastic are also breaking up into small nodes – can be microscopic – allowing a large range of animals to eat and then absorb it into their bodies. Our throw-away items are leading to mass bio-toxification of our oceans and consequently our food chain. Scientists are only now starting to really understand the long-term effects this plastic will have on our own biochemistry, but many studies have linked our increased plastics consumption to cancer (breast and colon), infertility, birth defects and obesity.  These scary statistics should not just be attached to the plastic that is in our food chains either. Considerable findings are starting to point to how we package and heat our foods as well. Plastic bottles, cheese, tofu, canned goods (inside of cans are lined in plastic), meat on Styrofoam trays and wrapped in cling wrap – these products have all been linked.

(If you are interested, Mens Health had this fantastic and thorough article about plastic and how it effects our health)

Effects on the Economy

Public perception is that plastic is cheap. Hell! It is better than cheap… it is FREE! However, this is a classic case of not looking at the embodied cost of the product – the true cost! As reported by Planet Ark plastic bags, for example, are not free to consumers – they add an estimated $173 million a year to Australia’s grocery bills! Additionally the Australian local and state governments spend over $200 million a year clearing litter. Right there is $375million that the Australian taxpayer is contributing to pollution. In the 2010-11 budget our government cut $250 million from urban water initiatives and $80million from major national environmental protection program (Caring for our Country) because of ‘hard financial times’. Could we not just cut the pollution, saving the consumer $173m, the taxpayer $200m and the environmental devastation which is unmeasurable? That’s $375million which could be injected back into the economy, towards useful ends, not just a lazy convenience. I know that producing a budget for the entire country is more complicated than that but the overall solution is simple. Stop investing in pollution. Start investing in sustainable technologies and solutions.

Effects on our Self-Respect

Image by Manan Vastsyayana original found at CoastalCare.org

It is not fair that we treat our environment, other countries (predominantly third-world), the animals that live in it, our health or our oceans this way. It is not even for a noble cause. There is not one application that we use plastic for that could not have an eco-alternative that uses renewable energy sources. I throw down the challenge for you to think of one? We need to start having a bit more self-respect and respect for the rest of the planet. We need to stop biting the hand that feeds us.

“Don’t blow it – good planets are hard to find”

~ Quoted in Time Magazine

My Conclusion

Researching this post has really strengthened my resolve to eliminate plastic from my life and I hope it has you too. I will be documenting my challenge to be plastic free as I am sure there will be some hurdles but I am willing to jump them after the information I have read this week. It isn’t all doom and gloom – tomorrow I will be looking at solutions (individual and otherwise) to this massive problem. There are little and big things that we can all do.